Emanuele Orlando was born raised and educated in Palermo,
Sicily. He is best known for his more than 100 writings on legal
issues and juridical subjects.
From 1903 to 1905 Orlando
served as minister of education under King Victor Emanuel III. He
became minister of justice in 1907 a position he held
until 1909. He was re-appointed to the justice post in 1914 until
he was nominated minister of the interior in 1916 in which capacity he
served until 1917.
Orlando was a strong proponent
of Italy's participation in World War I on the side of the Allies who
had secretly promised Orlando significant territorial concessions to
Italy in case of Italy's participation in the conflict.
in 1917 Orlando was elected
Prime Minister. In that function, he headed the Italian delegation
to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. However, he was unable to
obtain the territorial concessions for Italy which drastically
weakened his position which he lost mid of 1919.
December of 1919 he was elected president of the chamber of
deputies. Initially he supported Benito Mussolini's fascist
government that had been established in 1922. However, when the fascists
killed Giacomo Matteotti -a prominent socialist leader- in 1924, Orlando
no longer supported Mussolini's government and 3 years later he resigned
from the chamber of deputies and served thereafter in the constituent